The precession of our planet is majorly influenced by Sun and Moon’s gravitational influence also known as Lunisolar Precession and minorly by other planets in our solar system.
Due to this motion, the celestial pole precesses in 26,000 years. This precession causes pole stars to change every 2000 – 4000 years. Before we could understand which stars were the pole stars in the past, we must understand What a Pole Star is? What features distinguish a normal star from a pole star? A pole star is a position in the sky that is always in the polar direction. A North Pole star can be seen in the northern direction and similarly, a south pole star in the southern direction.
As most of the older civilizations grew in the northern hemisphere we have much more knowledge and idea about the North Pole star. Still, we have less evidence of which star used to be the north pole star. Over here we tried to figure out the possible north pole star. So we took three considerations.
- The Star must be close to the North Celestial Pole with a declination (angular distance of a point north or south of the celestial equator) not less than 80°
- The Star must have a magnitude less than 4.
- Historical/mythical stars were also taken
The table below shows the possible north pole star and years associated with it.